What is Acute Tubular Necrosis ?
It is defined as a disorder in which there is a death of the tubular cells that form tubules. They help to transport the urine to ureters and re absorbs 99 percent of the water. It is a medical condition. These cells replace themselves and on removing the cause there occur a recovery. The most common cause of acute renal failure is referred as an ARF is the acute tubular necrosis with acute renal failure is referred as an ARF. There are muddy brown casts of epithelial cells which are found in the urine during urinalysis is the unique feature of acute tubular necrosis.
What is the classification of Acute tubular necrosis ?
This disorder includes the toxic or ischemic forms. The toxic acute tubular necrosis occurs when the tubular cells are exposed to the toxic substance known as nephro toxic acute tubular necrosis. The ischemic acute tubular necrosis occurs when the tubular cells do not get enough oxygen and they are sensitive to it and are susceptible due to a very high metabolism.
What is the diagnosis of Acute tubular necrosis ?
This disorder includes the renal cause of acute renal failure. It is not pre or post renal. The diagnosis is made by the fractional excretion of sodium more than 3 and presence of the muddy casts. The proximal tubules have the ability to shed the variable viability and are not purely necrotic.
What is the toxic Acute tubular necrosis ?
It is defined as a disorder in which there is a free hemo globin or myo globin which occurs by the use of medicines like antibiotics and cyto static drugs. It can also occur by the intoxication of ethylene glycol which is a anti freeze. A toxic ATN also shows proximal tubular epithelium necrosis which has no nuclei, a preserve shape and intense eosinophilic homogenous cytoplasm. It may also occur due to some toxic substances like poisonous organic solvents, drugs and heavy metals. The necrotic cells fall into the lumen and block it. It determines the acute renal failure. The basement membrane is at its position and so the tubular epithelium regenerates. Glomeruli are not affected.
What is the ischemic Acute tubular necrosis ?
It is defined as a disorder in which there is an insufficient perfusion of kidneys for a long time. There is a renal artery steno sis which occurs during the shock. A hypo perfusion can also be caused by the embolism of renal arteries. This disorder leads to the skip lesions through the tubules.