What is adenoma of the adrenal gland?
It is defined as a condition in which there is a formation of the tumor which is benign in the nature. It can grow from different organs like colon, adrenal glands, pituitary and thyroid. They can become malignant at the later stages. Than they are called as an adeno carcinomas. In the benign case also they have the potential to lead to other health problems by putting the pressure on the nearby structures and producing a large amount of hormones. They are in a non regulated and non feedback manner.
What are the signs and symptoms of adenoma of the adrenal gland?
It is defined as a condition in which the symptoms depend on the location of adenoma. It mainly consists of the lumps.
What is the histo pathology of adenoma of the adrenal gland?
It includes the origin of benign epithelial tumor from the epithelium of mucosa which includes the stomach, small intestine, bowel and all other type of glands. In the hollow organs like digestive tract the tumor grows upwards into the lumen. This is referred as the adenomatous polyp or poly poid adenoma. The adenoma can also be differentiated depending on the base of insertion it can be pedunculated lobar head or a long slender stalk. It can be covered by normal mucosa or could be sessile. Its proliferation shows different types of cell dysplasia in which there is a loss of normal differentiation of epithelium, with irregular cells and a hyper chromatic nucleus. There is a stratified nucleus with nucleolus. One also observes the mitosis along with a decrease in the muco secretion. The appearance can be tubular, villous or tubule villous. The basement membrane and muscularis mucosa are in contact.
What is the location of adenoma of the adrenal gland?
It includes the colon which is a common site for the prevalence of adenomas. Colono scopy is there most common site and it is removed as it has a tendency to become malignant and form a colon cancer. In the kidneys the tumor is very small and does not show any symptoms and it originates from the renal tubules. It may lead to the cancer of kidney. The adenomas can occur in the adrenal glands and are quite common and occur on the abdomen which are not the focus of investigation and occur by chance. The chances of malignancy are 1 in 10 000. So, biopsy is not recommended. It is not done if the lesion is smaller in the size and is homogenous. There are follow up images which are done after 3 to 6 months to confirm the stage of growth. There are few adrenal adenomas which do not secrete hormones but there are few which may secret hormones like cortisol and leads to Cushing’s syndrome and with the secretion of aldosterone leads to the cons syndrome and the secretion of androgens leads to the hyper androgenism.
2. One observes thyroid nodules in one tenth of the patients suffering from this disorder. It requires a proper investigation as they are malignant in nature. This disorder is confirmed by the biopsy and it requires a surgical excision when the cells which are found here are of follicular type. There are adenomas which are present in the pituitary and occur in one tenth of the patients suffering from the neurological disorder. Most of it is not diagnosed and it requires a surgical excision in which the patients respond well. Pro lactinoma is the most common sub type of disorder found in the women and is diagnosed commonly. It occurs during the pregnancy and the sex hormones increases its growth. The medical therapy includes the bromo criptine which suppresses the pro lactinoma and the antagonist therapy of progesterone has not been found to be successful.
3. In the liver there is a hepato cellular adenoma which is rare and benign in the nature. They occur along with the hepato megaly. There are breast adenomas which are also known as the fibro adenomas. They are small and quite difficult to diagnose as it shows no symptoms. The treatment includes the biopsy and a surgical removal.
4. It can also occur in the appendix but the condition is not common. The actual case is not encountered but it may happen in the future. It is referred as the cyst adenoma. They are discovered at the time of examination of tissue and during appendectomy. The rupturing of appendix along with the presence of tumor can lead to the further problems. It mainly happens when the malignant cells have formed and they spread to abdomen.
5. The brachial adenomas are present in the bronchi and may lead to the carcinoid syndrome which is a type of para neo plastic syndrome. One can also observe a cutaneous condition known as the sebaceous adenoma in which there is a slow growing tumor which is presented as a pink, flesh colored or a yellow papule.