What is an Acute Monoblastic Leukemia?
It is defined as a disorder in which there is a acute myeloid leukemia. It is also known as the AMol or AML M5.
What is the diagnosis of Acute monoblastic leukemia?
In order to satisfy the WHO criteria it must satisfy a requirement of the patient with more than 20 percent blasts in the marrow. Out of which 80 percent are of monocytic lineage type. There is further sub classification of M5a and M5b. It depends on the monocytic cells which can be monoblasts which are more than 80 percent. These are referred as acute monoblastic leukemia. There is a mixture of monoblasts and pro monocytes which are less than 80 percent. The monoblasts have a rough circular nucleus and delicate lacy chromatin with abundant and basophilic cytoplasm. They may also have pseudo pods. But the pro monocytes have a more convoluted nucleus and the cytoplasm is rich in thee meta chromatic granules. The mono blasts are mostly MPO negative and the pro monocytes are MPO variable. Both of the mono blasts and pro monocytes stain positive for non specific esterase but it can be negative also. The immune phenol typically M5 AML expresses the myeloid and monocytic markers. The cells may express aberrantly B cell marker along with the NK marker. The mono blasts can be positive for the CD34.
What are the causes of Acute monoblastic leukemia?
It is mainly caused by the chromosomal abnormalities. It involves the 11q 23 or t affecting the MLL locus. The MLL translocation is also found in the AML subtypes. MLL translocation is found to be prognostic ally unfavorable in AML M5 as compared to the genetic alterations which involve the MLL such as t. The t translocation associated with hemo phagocytosis in case of MLL. The AML M5 is associated with the exposure to epido phyllotoxins.
What is the treatment of Acute monoblastic leukemia ?
They are mainly treated with the help of intensive chemo therapy and bone marrow transplantation. The intensive chemotherapy involves the use of anthracyclines.